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  • package org
    Definition Classes
  • package scalatestplus
    Definition Classes
  • package selenium
    Definition Classes
  • trait WebBrowser extends AnyRef

    Trait that provides a domain specific language (DSL) for writing browser-based tests using Selenium.

    Trait that provides a domain specific language (DSL) for writing browser-based tests using Selenium.

    To use ScalaTest's Selenium DSL, mix trait WebBrowser into your test class. This trait provides the DSL in its entirety except for one missing piece: an implicit org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver. One way to provide the missing implicit driver is to declare one as a member of your test class, like this:

    import org.scalatest._
    import selenium._
    import org.openqa.selenium._
    import htmlunit._
    class BlogSpec extends FlatSpec with Matchers with WebBrowser {
    implicit val webDriver: WebDriver = new HtmlUnitDriver
    val host = "http://localhost:9000/"
    "The blog app home page" should "have the correct title" in { go to (host + "index.html") pageTitle should be ("Awesome Blog") } }

    For convenience, however, ScalaTest provides a WebBrowser subtrait containing an implicit WebDriver for each driver provided by Selenium. Thus a simpler way to use the HtmlUnit driver, for example, is to extend ScalaTest's HtmlUnit trait, like this:

    import org.scalatest._
    import selenium._
    class BlogSpec extends FlatSpec with Matchers with HtmlUnit {
    val host = "http://localhost:9000/"
    "The blog app home page" should "have the correct title" in { go to (host + "index.html") pageTitle should be ("Awesome Blog") } }

    The web driver traits provided by ScalaTest are:

    DriverWebBrowser subtrait
    Google Chrome Chrome
    Mozilla Firefox Firefox
    HtmlUnit HtmlUnit
    Microsoft Internet Explorer InternetExplorer
    Apple Safari Safari


    You can ask the browser to retrieve a page (go to a URL) like this:

    go to ""

    Note: If you are using the page object pattern, you can also go to a page using the Page instance, as illustrated in the section on page objects below.

    Once you have retrieved a page, you can fill in and submit forms, query for the values of page elements, and make assertions. In the following example, selenium will go to, fill in the text box with Cheese!, press the submit button, and wait for result returned from an AJAX call:

    go to ""
    click on "q"
    // Google's search is rendered dynamically with JavaScript.
    eventually { pageTitle should be ("Cheese! - Google Search") }

    In the above example, the "q" used in “click on "q"” can be either the id or name of an element. ScalaTest's Selenium DSL will try to lookup by id first. If it cannot find any element with an id equal to "q", it will then try lookup by name "q".

    Alternatively, you can be more specific:

    click on id("q")   // to lookup by id "q" 
    click on name("q") // to lookup by name "q" 

    In addition to id and name, you can use the following approaches to lookup elements, just as you can do with Selenium's org.openqa.selenium.By class:

    • xpath
    • className
    • cssSelector
    • linkText
    • partialLinkText
    • tagName

    For example, you can select by link text with:

    click on linkText("click here!")

    If an element is not found via any form of lookup, evaluation will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException.

    Getting and setting input element values

    ScalaTest's Selenium DSL provides a clear, simple syntax for accessing and updating the values of input elements such as text fields, radio buttons, checkboxes, selection lists, and the input types introduced in HTML5. If a requested element is not found, or if it is found but is not of the requested type, an exception will immediately result causing the test to fail.

    The most common way to access field value is through the value property, which is supported by the following input types:

    Tag Name Input Type Lookup Method
    input text textField
    textarea - textArea
    input password pwdField
    input email emailField
    input color colorField
    input date dateField
    input datetime dateTimeField
    input datetime-local dateTimeLocalField
    input month monthField
    input number numberField
    input range rangeField
    input search searchField
    input tel telField
    input time timeField
    input url urlField
    input week weekField

    You can change a input field's value by assigning it via the = operator, like this:

    textField("q").value = "Cheese!"

    And you can access a input field's value by simply invoking value on it:

    textField("q").value should be ("Cheese!")

    If the text field is empty, value will return an empty string ("").

    You can use the same syntax with other type of input fields by replacing textField with Lookup Method listed in table above, for example to use text area:

    textArea("body").value = "I saw something cool today!"
    textArea("body").value should be ("I saw something cool today!")

    or with a password field:

    pwdField("secret").value = "Don't tell anybody!"
    pwdField("secret").value should be ("Don't tell anybody!")

    Alternate Way for Data Entry

    An alternate way to enter data into a input fields is to use enter or pressKeys. Although both of enter and pressKeys send characters to the active element, pressKeys can be used on any kind of element, whereas enter can only be used on text entry fields, which include:

    • textField
    • textArea
    • pwdField
    • emailField
    • searchField
    • telField
    • urlField

    Another difference is that enter will clear the text field or area before sending the characters, effectively replacing any currently existing text with the new text passed to enter. By contrast, pressKeys does not do any clearing—it just appends more characters to any existing text. You can backup with pressKeys, however, by sending explicit backspace characters, "\u0008".

    To use these commands, you must first click on the input field you are interested in to give it the focus. Here's an example:

    click on "q"

    Here's a (contrived) example of using pressKeys with backspace to fix a typo:

    click on "q"              // q is the name or id of a text field or text area
    enter("Cheesey!")         // Oops, meant to say Cheese!
    pressKeys("\u0008\u0008") // Send two backspaces; now the value is Cheese
    pressKeys("!")            // Send the missing exclamation point; now the value is Cheese!

    Radio buttons

    Radio buttons work together in groups. For example, you could have a group of radio buttons, like this:

    <input type="radio" id="opt1" name="group1" value="Option 1"> Option 1</input>
    <input type="radio" id="opt2" name="group1" value="Option 2"> Option 2</input>
    <input type="radio" id="opt3" name="group1" value="Option 3"> Option 3</input>

    You can select an option in either of two ways:

    radioButtonGroup("group1").value = "Option 2"
    radioButtonGroup("group1").selection = Some("Option 2")

    Likewise, you can read the currently selected value of a group of radio buttons in two ways:

    radioButtonGroup("group1").value should be ("Option 2")
    radioButtonGroup("group1").selection should be (Some("Option 2"))

    If the radio button has no selection at all, selection will return None whereas value will throw a TestFailedException. By using value, you are indicating you expect a selection, and if there isn't a selection that should result in a failed test.

    If you would like to work with RadioButton element directly, you can select it by calling radioButton:

    click on radioButton("opt1")

    you can check if an option is selected by calling isSelected:

    radioButton("opt1").isSelected should be (true)

    to get the value of radio button, you can call value:

    radioButton("opt1").value should be ("Option 1")


    A checkbox in one of two states: selected or cleared. Here's how you select a checkbox:


    And here's how you'd clear one:


    You can access the current state of a checkbox with isSelected:

    checkbox("cbx1").isSelected should be (true)

    Single-selection dropdown lists

    Given the following single-selection dropdown list:

    <select id="select1">
     <option value="option1">Option 1</option>
     <option value="option2">Option 2</option>
     <option value="option3">Option 3</option>

    You could select Option 2 in either of two ways:

    singleSel("select1").value = "option2"
    singleSel("select1").selection = Some("option2")

    To clear the selection, either invoke clear or set selection to None:

    singleSel("select1").selection = None

    You can read the currently selected value of a single-selection list in the same manner as radio buttons:

    singleSel("select1").value should be ("option2")
    singleSel("select1").selection should be (Some("option2"))

    If the single-selection list has no selection at all, selection will return None whereas value will throw a TestFailedException. By using value, you are indicating you expect a selection, and if there isn't a selection that should result in a failed test.

    Multiple-selection lists

    Given the following multiple-selection list:

    <select name="select2" multiple="multiple">
     <option value="option4">Option 4</option>
     <option value="option5">Option 5</option>
     <option value="option6">Option 6</option>

    You could select Option 5 and Option 6 like this:

    multiSel("select2").values = Seq("option5", "option6")

    The previous command would essentially clear all selections first, then select Option 5 and Option 6. If instead you want to not clear any existing selection, just additionally select Option 5 and Option 6, you can use the += operator, like this.

    multiSel("select2").values += "option5"
    multiSel("select2").values += "option6"

    To clear a specific option, pass its name to clear:


    To clear all selections, call clearAll:


    You can access the current selections with values, which returns an immutable IndexedSeq[String]:

    multiSel("select2").values should have size 2
    multiSel("select2").values(0) should be ("option5")
    multiSel("select2").values(1) should be ("option6")

    Clicking and submitting

    You can click on any element with “click on” as shown previously:

    click on "aButton"
    click on name("aTextField")

    If the requested element is not found, click on will throw an exception, failing the test.

    Clicking on a input element will give it the focus. If current focus is in on an input element within a form, you can submit the form by calling submit:



    You can switch to a popup alert bo using the following code:

    switch to alertBox

    to switch to a frame, you could:

    switch to frame(0) // switch by index
    switch to frame("name") // switch by name

    If you have reference to a window handle (can be obtained from calling windowHandle/windowHandles), you can switch to a particular window by:

    switch to window(windowHandle)

    You can also switch to active element and default content:

    switch to activeElement
    switch to defaultContent

    Navigation history

    In real web browser, you can press the 'Back' button to go back to previous page. To emulate that action in your test, you can call goBack:


    To emulate the 'Forward' button, you can call:


    And to refresh or reload the current page, you can call:



    To create a new cookie, you'll say:

    add cookie ("cookie_name", "cookie_value")

    to read a cookie value, you do:

    cookie("cookie_name").value should be ("cookie_value") // If value is undefined, throws TFE right then and there. Never returns null.

    In addition to the common use of name-value cookie, you can pass these extra fields when creating the cookie, available ways are:

    cookie(name: String, value: String)
    cookie(name: String, value: String, path: String)
    cookie(name: String, value: String, path: String, expiry: Date)
    cookie(name: String, value: String, path: String, expiry: Date, domain: String)
    cookie(name: String, value: String, path: String, expiry: Date, domain: String, secure: Boolean)

    and to read those extra fields:

    cookie("cookie_name").value   // Read cookie's value
    cookie("cookie_name").path    // Read cookie's path
    cookie("cookie_name").expiry  // Read cookie's expiry
    cookie("cookie_name").domain  // Read cookie's domain
    cookie("cookie_name").isSecure  // Read cookie's isSecure flag

    In order to delete a cookie, you could use the following code:

    delete cookie "cookie_name"

    or to delete all cookies in the same domain:-

    delete all cookies

    To get the underlying Selenium cookie, you can use underlying:

    cookie("cookie_name").underlying.validate()  // call the validate() method on underlying Selenium cookie

    Other useful element properties

    All element types (textField, textArea, radioButton, checkbox, singleSel, multiSel) support the following useful properties:

    location The XY location of the top-left corner of this Element.
    size The width/height size of this Element.
    isDisplayed Indicates whether this Element is displayed.
    isEnabled Indicates whether this Element is enabled.
    isSelected Indicates whether this Element is selected.
    tagName The tag name of this element.
    underlying The underlying WebElement wrapped by this Element.
    attribute(name: String) The attribute value of the given attribute name of this element, wrapped in a Some, or None if no such attribute exists on this Element.
    text Returns the visible (i.e., not hidden by CSS) text of this element, including sub-elements, without any leading or trailing whitespace.

    Implicit wait

    To set Selenium's implicit wait timeout, you can call the implicitlyWait method:

    implicitlyWait(Span(10, Seconds))

    Invoking this method sets the amount of time the driver will wait when searching for an element that is not immediately present. For more information, see the documentation for method implicitlyWait.

    Page source and current URL

    It is possible to get the html source of currently loaded page, using:


    and if needed, get the current URL of currently loaded page:


    Screen capture

    You can capture screen using the following code:

    val file = capture

    By default, the captured image file will be saved in temporary folder (returned by property), with random file name ends with .png extension. You can specify a fixed file name:

    capture to "MyScreenShot.png"


    capture to "MyScreenShot"

    Both will result in a same file name MyScreenShot.png.

    You can also change the target folder screenshot file is written to, by saying:


    If you want to capture a screenshot when something goes wrong (e.g. test failed), you can use withScreenshot:

    withScreenshot {
      assert("Gold" == "Silver", "Expected gold, but got silver")

    In case the test code fails, you'll see the screenshot location appended to the error message, for example:

    Expected gold but got silver; screenshot capture in /tmp/AbCdEfGhIj.png

    Using the page object pattern

    If you use the page object pattern, mixing trait Page into your page classes will allow you to use the go to syntax with your page objects. Here's an example:

    class HomePage extends Page {
      val url = "http://localhost:9000/index.html"
    val homePage = new HomePage go to homePage

    Executing JavaScript

    To execute arbitrary JavaScript, for example, to test some JavaScript functions on your page, pass it to executeScript:

    go to (host + "index.html")
    val result1 = executeScript("return document.title;")
    result1 should be ("Test Title")
    val result2 = executeScript("return 'Hello ' + arguments[0]", "ScalaTest")
    result2 should be ("Hello ScalaTest")

    To execute an asynchronous bit of JavaScript, pass it to executeAsyncScript. You can set the script timeout with setScriptTimeout:

    val script = """
      var callback = arguments[arguments.length - 1];
      window.setTimeout(function() {callback('Hello ScalaTest')}, 500);
    setScriptTimeout(1 second)
    val result = executeAsyncScript(script)
    result should be ("Hello ScalaTest")

    Querying for elements

    You can query for arbitrary elements via find and findAll. The find method returns the first matching element, wrapped in a Some, or None if no element is found. The findAll method returns an immutable IndexedSeq of all matching elements. If no elements match the query, findAll returns an empty IndexedSeq. These methods allow you to perform rich queries using for expressions. Here are some examples:

    val ele: Option[Element] = find("q")
    val eles: colection.immutable.IndexedSeq[Element] = findAll(className("small")) for (e <- eles; if e.tagName != "input") e should be ('displayed) val textFields = eles filter { tf.isInstanceOf[TextField] }

    Cleaning up

    To close the current browser window, and exit the driver if the current window was the only one remaining, use close:


    To close all windows, and exit the driver, use quit:


    Alternate forms

    Although statements like “delete all cookies” fit well with matcher statements like “title should be ("Cheese!")”, they do not fit as well with the simple method call form of assertions. If you prefer, you can avoid operator notation and instead use alternatives that take the form of plain-old method calls. Here's an example:

    textField("q").value = "Cheese!"
    // Google's search is rendered dynamically with JavaScript.
    eventually(assert(pageTitle === "Cheese! - Google Search"))

    Here's a table showing the complete list of alternatives:

    operator notationmethod call
    go to (host + "index.html") goTo(host + "index.html")
    click on "aButton" clickOn("aButton")
    switch to activeElement switchTo(activeElement)
    add cookie ("cookie_name", "cookie_value") addCookie("cookie_name", "cookie_value")
    delete cookie "cookie_name" deleteCookie("cookie_name")
    delete all cookies deleteAllCookies()
    capture to "MyScreenShot" captureTo("MyScreenShot")

    Definition Classes
  • ActiveElementTarget
  • AlertTarget
  • Checkbox
  • ClassNameQuery
  • ColorField
  • CookiesNoun
  • CssSelectorQuery
  • DateField
  • DateTimeField
  • DateTimeLocalField
  • DefaultContentTarget
  • Dimension
  • Element
  • EmailField
  • FrameElementTarget
  • FrameIndexTarget
  • FrameNameOrIdTarget
  • FrameWebElementTarget
  • IdQuery
  • LinkTextQuery
  • MonthField
  • MultiSel
  • MultiSelOptionSeq
  • NameQuery
  • NumberField
  • PartialLinkTextQuery
  • PasswordField
  • Point
  • Query
  • RadioButton
  • RadioButtonGroup
  • RangeField
  • SearchField
  • SingleSel
  • SwitchTarget
  • TagNameQuery
  • TelField
  • TextArea
  • TextField
  • TimeField
  • UrlField
  • ValueElement
  • WeekField
  • WindowTarget
  • WrappedCookie
  • XPathQuery
  • add
  • capture
  • click
  • delete
  • go
  • switch

final class ActiveElementTarget extends SwitchTarget[Element]

This class supports switching to the currently active element in ScalaTest's Selenium DSL. Please see the documentation for WebBrowser for an overview of the Selenium DSL.

This class is enables the following syntax:

switch to activeElement

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Instance Constructors

  1. new ActiveElementTarget()

Value Members

  1. final def !=(arg0: Any): Boolean
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    @throws(classOf[java.lang.CloneNotSupportedException]) @native()
  6. final def eq(arg0: AnyRef): Boolean
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  11. final def isInstanceOf[T0]: Boolean
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  12. final def ne(arg0: AnyRef): Boolean
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  13. final def notify(): Unit
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  14. final def notifyAll(): Unit
    Definition Classes
  15. def switch(driver: WebDriver)(implicit position: Position): Element

    Switches the driver to the currently active element.

    Switches the driver to the currently active element.


    the WebDriver with which to perform the switch

    Definition Classes
  16. final def synchronized[T0](arg0: => T0): T0
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  17. def toString(): String
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  18. final def wait(): Unit
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  19. final def wait(arg0: Long, arg1: Int): Unit
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  20. final def wait(arg0: Long): Unit
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    @throws(classOf[java.lang.InterruptedException]) @native()

Inherited from SwitchTarget[Element]

Inherited from AnyRef

Inherited from Any